Teaching Lesson 3

In this lesson, the students will modify the base Water Pumping model to include additional water pumps. In the first activity, the students will add a second water pump that pulls water from the aquifer. Next, students will add monitors and a line graph that collects and displays the cumulative amount of water pumped by each pump. In the second activity, the new model can then be used as an experimental test bed. Students develop a hypothesis, run an experiment, and analyze the results to see what effect the modification had on the system.

Review the activities from Lesson 3 as well as the material below. Reflect on how you would teach this in your class. Post your reflection to your portfolio in "Pedagogy->Module 2" under the heading Lesson 3.

Lesson Objectives
    The student will:
  • Learn that typically as human populations and consumption of natural resources increase, so do the negative impacts on Earth [LO11].
  • Ask a question that can be answered using the model as an experimental test bed [LO12].
  • Design and conduct an experiment [LO13].
  • Collect and analyze data to look for patterns [LO14].
  • Modify a simple computer model and display output data using widgets [LO15].
  • Practice Pair Programming and Iterative Design-Implement-Test cycle [LO16].

Teaching Summary
Getting Started – 5 minutes
     1. Review of the previous day’s lesson and concepts and connection to today’s lesson.

Activity #1: Adding a water pump – 20 minutes
     2. CS review: find and decode the procedure that creates the initial pump.
     3. Duplicate and alter the procedure to create a new pump.
     4. Add monitors and line graphs to display and visualize data.
     5. Test your model.

Activity #2: Run an experiment to see the effect of the modification – 20 minutes
     6. Designing your experiment.
     7. Running your experiments.
     8. Collecting and analyzing data.

Wrap-Up – 5 minutes
     9. What does the computer model enable us to do that would be difficult in the real world?
     10. How could a computer model like the Water Pumping model be used to manage water resources?

Assessment Questions
  • Describe potential negative impacts of adding additional water wells in a community with limited water resources [LO11].
  • Assess student responses on the Model Design Form and Experimental Design Form [LO12, LO13, and LO14].
  • Describe a procedure you added to the model [LO15].
  • In your own words, describe how you tested and, if necessary, refined your procedure [LO16].

NGSS Performance Expectations
Earth and Human Activity
MS-ESS3-4. Construct an argument supported by evidence for how increases in human population and per-capita consumption of natural resources impact Earth’s systems.

Earth’s Systems
MS-ESS2-4. Develop a model to describe the cycling of water through Earth's systems driven by energy from the sun and the force of gravity.

NRC Disciplinary Core Ideas
ESS2.C: The Roles of Water in Earth's Surface Processes
Water continually cycles among land, ocean, and atmosphere via transpiration, evaporation, condensation and crystallization, and precipitation, as well as downhill flows on land. Global movements of water and its changes in form are propelled by sunlight and gravity.

ESS3.C. Human Impacts on Earth Systems
Typically as human populations and per-capita consumption of natural resources increase, so do the negative impacts on Earth unless the activities and technologies involved are engineered otherwise

NRC Scientific and Engineering Practices
Practice 1. Asking questions and defining problems
Ask questions to identify and clarify evidence of an argument.

Practice 2. Developing and using models
Evaluate limitations of a model for a proposed object or tool.
Develop and/or use a model to predict and/or describe phenomena.
Develop and/or use a model to generate data to test ideas about phenomena in natural or designed systems, including those representing inputs and outputs, and those at unobservable scales.

Practice 3. Planning and carrying out investigations
Plan an investigation individually and collaboratively, and in the design: identify independent and dependent variables and controls, what tools are needed to do the gathering, how measurements will be recorded, and how many data are needed to support a claim.
Collect data to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence to answer scientific questions or test. as the basis for evidence to answer scientific questions or test.

Practice 4. Analyzing and interpreting data
Analyze and interpret data to provide evidence for phenomena.

Practice 7. Engaging in argument from evidence
Construct an oral and written argument supported by empirical evidence and scientific reasoning to support or refute an explanation or a model for a phenomenon or a solution to a problem.

Practice 8. Obtaining, evaluating and communicating information
Communicate scientific and/or technical information (e.g. about a proposed object, tool, process, system) in writing and/or through oral presentations.

NRC Crosscutting Concepts
Cause and Effect
Cause and effect relationships may be used to predict phenomena in natural or designed systems.

Stability and Change
Stability might be disturbed either by sudden events or gradual changes that accumulate over time.

Energy and Matter
The transfer of energy can be tracked as energy flows through a designed or natural system.

Patterns can be used to identify cause and effect relationships.
Graphs, charts, and images can be used to identify patterns in data.

Scale, proportion and quantity
Time, space, and energy phenomena can be observed at various scales using models to study systems that are too
large or too small.

Systems and Systems models
Systems may interact with other systems; they may have sub-systems and be a part of larger complex systems.
Models can be used to represent systems and their interactions—such as inputs, processes and outputs—and
energy, matter, and information flows within systems.
Models are limited in that they only represent certain aspects of the system under study.

CSTA K-12 Computer Science Standards
CT Abstraction 2-12 Use abstraction to decompose a problem into sub problems.
CT Abstraction 3A-9 Discuss the value of abstraction to manage problem complexity.
CT Abstraction 3B-10 Decompose a problem by defining new functions and classes.
CT Algorithms 2-4 Evaluate ways that different algorithms may be used to solve the same problem.
CT Modeling & simulation 1:6-4 Describe how a simulation can be used to solve a problem.
CT Modeling & simulation 2-11 Analyze the degree to which a computer model accurately represents the real world.
CT Modeling & simulation 2-9 Interact with content-specific models and simulations to support learning and research.
CT Modeling & simulation 3A-8 Use modeling and simulation to represent and understand natural phenomena.
CT Modeling & simulation 3B-8 Use models and simulation to help formulate, refine, and test scientific hypotheses.
CT Modeling & simulation 3B-9 Analyze data and identify patterns through modeling and simulation.
CPP Programming 2-5 Implement a problem solution in a programming environment using looping behavior, conditional statements, logic, expressions, variables, and functions.
CPP Programming 3A-3 Use various debugging and testing methods to ensure program correctness.
CPP Programming 3A-4 Apply analysis, design and implementation techniques to solve problems.